Praticipatory Engagement

Question Based Participatory Learning Model

There are essentially two paths to finding out what people think of a new set of ideas: engagement that seeks to simply reform the status quo, or participatory community engagement that leads to a transformational shift in the status quo. The first requires only that the system itself (composed of a consulting body,, stakeholders, ideas and resources) be brought together to comment, collaborate, or plan about existing models of public service.

The second requires much deeper exploration, introducing new mental models, completely new ways of doing business and transforming stakeholders to co-creators. Most forms of community engagement practiced in the public sector are incremental and seek only to initiate small scale change. These include consultation on changing programs and services, refinements to existing structures of government or creating new initiatives in line with a government's stated policy objectives. Governments in general are loath to change much about the fundamentals of public service delivery.

Large scale change is risky. With a high chance of failure, political capital can wither away as well. So most governments, even as they champion reform-based agendas, rarely undertake truly transformational shifts in their ways of doing business.

Interactive Discussion

A way to improve & encourage ideas to generate

While all learning requires an active intellect and interest, active learning methods are those which encourage students to take part in verbal or even physical actions and to engage in activities that help them approach information differently. Employing active learning may mean that you will cover less material, but your students should have a deeper understanding of the content covered in class as long as guidelines and goals are set at the beginning of the semester.

Interactive discussions provide ideal opportunities to encourage active learning. Leading discussions requires that TA’s create a comfortable classroom community and ask good questions. In this seminar, you will learn some basic strategies for staging active and productive discussions.

Competency Based Exercise

Helps to improve through learning by doing

Competency-based learning[1] or competency-based education and training is an approach to teaching and learning more often used in learning concrete skills than abstract learning. It differs from other non-related approaches in that the unit of learning is extremely fine-grained rather than a course or a module, every individual skill or learning outcome (known as a competency) is one single unit.

Learners work on one competency at a time, which is likely a small component of a larger learning goal. The student is evaluated on the individual competency and can only move on to other competencies after they have mastered the current skill being learned. After that, higher or more complex competencies are learned to a degree of mastery and are isolated from other topics.

Brain Storming

Brainstorming session among participants

Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members. In other words, brainstorming is a situation where a group of people meet to generate new ideas and solutions around a specific domain of interest by removing inhibitions.

People are able to think more freely and they suggest many spontaneous new ideas as possible. All the ideas are noted down and those ideas are not criticized and after brainstorming session the ideas are evaluated. The term was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in the 1953 book Applied Imagination


Heart rate shares a strong, positive correlation with the self reported anxiety of performers.

In work place, performance or job performance means good ranking with the hypothesized conception of requirements of a role. There are two types of job performances: contextual and task.- Task performance is related to cognitive ability while contextual performance is dependent upon personality.[2] Task performance are behavioral roles that are recognized in job descriptions and by remuneration systems.

They are directly related to organizational performance, whereas, contextual performance are value based and additional behavioral roles that are not recognized in job descriptions and covered by compensation; they are extra roles that are indirectly related to organizational performance

Hands On Training

Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others.

Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics).

In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.


In teaching through demonstration

In teaching through demonstration, students are set up to potentially conceptualize class material more effectively as shown in a study which specifically focuses on chemistry demonstrations presented by teachers. Demonstrations often occur when students have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories.

Teachers not only demonstrate specific learning concepts within the classroom, they can also participate in demonstration classrooms to help improve their own teaching strategies, which may or may not be demonstrative in nature.

Although the literature is limited, studies show that the effects of demonstration classroom teachers includes a change of perspective in relating to students, more reflection in the teachers’ own classroom strategies, and more personal responsibility for student learning

Role Playing

Role-playing is the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role

Role-playing is the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role while the Oxford English Dictionary offers a definition of role-playing as "the changing of one's behaviour to fulfill a social role",[1] in the field of psychology, the term is used more loosely in four senses.

Many children participate in a form of role-playing known as make believe, wherein they adopt certain roles such as doctor and act out those roles in character. Sometimes make believe adopts an oppositional nature, resulting in games such as cops and robbers.

Case Study

Not to be confused with case method, used in teaching.

A case study is a research method involving an up-close,the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.Case studies can be produced by following a formal research method. These case studies are likely to appear in formal research venues, as journals and professional conferences, rather than popular works

The resulting body of 'case study research' has long had a prominent place in many disciplines and professions, ranging from psychology, anthropology, sociology, and political science to education, clinical science, social work, and administrative science


An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed

An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships. Although the term usually refers to ice-breaking may also refer to smaller vessels, such as the icebreaking boats that were once used on the canals of the United Kingdom.

For a ship to be considered an icebreaker, it requires three traits most normal ships lack: a strengthened hull, an ice-clearing shape, and the power to push through sea ice